Energy is an economic activity that deals with the use of various energy sources and electricity production.
Energy is important for the development of the whole society because in the modern world the economic development of a country almost entirely depends on the available energy sources, their utilization and application in production and consumption.
In an effort to achieve the highest possible degree of energy self-sufficiency, the EU, in addition to conventional energy sources, encourages the development and use of renewable energy sources (solar energy; wind energy; geothermal energy; biomass energy; tidal energy and sea waves…).
Europe is dependent on imports of all forms of conventional energy sources, starting with electricity, gas and oil. In the EU in 2018, the dependency rate was equal to 58 %, which means that more than half of the EU’s energy needs were met by net imports*. (*Source: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/)
According to the theses advocated by some experts, the total quantities of conventional energy sources on the globe are limited and we have at our disposal only 89 0109 t of coal (or for approximately 153 years), crude oil 24 0109 tons (or for 50 years) and gas 18 51012 m3 (or for 53 years). According to these settings, complex scenarios of market supply and prices of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal) can be expected in the future.
The sun as a source of energy is a guarantee for the survival of humanity on the globe. The hourly radiated energy of the Sun is far above the hourly needs of the earth.
The development of new technologies is based on the need to direct the Sun’s energy to our daily needs, but the problem of the accumulation of that energy due to frequent time shifts between energy production and the need for its consumption. The situation is similar with other renewable energy sources.
“Renewable energy sources are energy sources that are preserved in nature and are renewable in whole or in part, especially water, wind, non-accumulated solar energy, biodiesel, biomass, biogas, geothermal energy, etc.” (Energy Act; OG 120/12, 14/14, 95/15, 102/15, 68/18)
The Republic of Croatia has undertaken the obligation to increase the use of energy from renewable sources, whereby in 2020 the share of energy from renewable sources in gross direct consumption should be at least 20%, observed at the EU level.
The Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency through its programs co-finances the procurement of systems for the use of renewable energy sources, mainly through energy renovation programs (systems for the use of renewable energy sources are a justified cost in renovation programs of family, apartment and non-residential buildings) or as a special program households.